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Create a local repository in ubuntu 7.10

Written By pcbolong on Friday, February 27, 2009 | 8:18 AM

This is my experience when I want to copy the repository from the dvd to hardisk. I think the content of dvd is only copied to the hard drive and repository is ready for use. In fact there is a special way so that the repository can be legible by a daemon.

Ubuntu 7.10 (gutsy gibbon)
Disk 1: main
Disk 2: main restricted multiverse
Disk 3: universe
Disk 4: universe
Disk 5: universe
Minimal empty harddisk is 25 gigabyte

OK, lets go...following this step!!

1. Create a folder to save the repository. usually stored in /home
:~$ sudo mkdir /home/ubuntu

2. Then copyed the content of dvd 1 to folder /ubuntu with the following commant is (with the assumption that the program rsync is already installed) :
:~$ sudo rsync -avx –progress /media/cdrom0/. /home/ubuntu/.
if it has finished, repeat the above command again on the dvd 2 to dvd 5.

3. Each dvd has a list of package repositories that are stored in the dvd, so we must combine the list of packages that are in the DVD into a file package that can read the entire package is in the folder after copying from DVD. The first steps, create temporary folder to save the list of all packages from the dvd will be combined
:~$ sudo mkdir /tmp/main
Copy the file list for package MAIN Packages in DVD 1, entries DVD 1
:~$ sudo cp /media/cdrom0/dists/gutsy/main/binary-i386/Packages /tmp/main

4. Then combine the list of MAIN packages on the DVD 2 to list of Packages DVD 1 in the file /tmp/main/ with the following command:
:~$ sudo cat /media/cdrom0/dists/gutsy/main/binary-i386/Packages >> /tmp/main/Packages

5. After the merger is completed, move the files of package (/tmp/main/Packages) to the place where saved the main package that was copied from the earlier dvd with this command:
:~$ sudo cp /tmp/main/Packages /home/ubuntu/dists/main/binary-i386/

6. Then re-compress list of main packages :
:~$ cd /home/ubuntu/dists/main/binary-i386/
:~$ sudo gzip -9 -c Packages > Packages.gz
:~$ sudo bzip2 -9 -c Packages > Packages.bz2

7. Then combine file packages Universe from dvd 3 to dvd 5, the general command is the
same as the step 3 to step 6. create temporary folder to save the list of all packages from the dvd will be combined
:~$ sudo mkdir /tmp/universe

8. Change DVD2 with DVD 3 then copyed file of list universe packages
:~$ sudo cp /media/cdrom0/dists/gutsy/universe/binary-i386/Packages /tmp/universe

9. Combine list of universe package from DVD 4 with DVD 3 in folder /tmp/universe/Packages :
:~$ sudo cat /media/cdrom0/dists/gutsy/universe/binary-i386/Packages >> /tmp/universe/Packages

10. Combine list of universe package from DVD 5 with list of packages DVD 3 in folder /tmp/universe/Packages :
:~$ sudo cat /media/cdrom0/dists/gutsy/universe/binary-i386/Packages >> /tmp/universe/Packages

11. after combined, moving file packages (/tmp/universe/Packages) to the place where saved the main package that was copied from the earlier dvd with this command:
:~$ sudo cp /tmp/universe/Packages /home/ubuntu/dists/universe/binary-i386/

12. then re-compress list of Universe Packages :
:~$ cd /home/ubuntu/dists/universe/binary-i386/
:~$ sudo gzip -9 -c Packages > Packages.gz
:~$ sudo bzip2 -9 -c Packages > Packages.bz2

13. Then change file /etc/apt/sources.list with the command:
:~$ sudo gedit /etc/apt/source.list
and fill this statement in the first line :
deb file:///home/ubuntu gutsy main restricted universe multiverse

taraaaa.....the packages of repositori is ready to installed...
8:18 AM | 0 comments | Read More

Check computer memory use Memtest86

Written By pcbolong on Wednesday, February 25, 2009 | 9:26 PM

Some time I experienced a problem in the computer memory that cause the computer to stop the computer process and more problems that arise when the computer switched on. After testing on several hardware tools, I understand hat computer memory was problems. What I experienced is blue screen of death with the messege is memory corupt.

Memtest86 will only check for memory detected by bios and operating system, are not recognized by bios most likely damaged.

First, download the Memtest86 for floppy version in here . For floppy disk version is very easy for use.

Instalation Memtest86
Tools requirements : Floppy disk and Memtest86 for floppy version
1. Exstract Memtest86

2. Formated the floppy disk

3. Run install.bat
Type the name of floppy diskette drive in Enter target diskette drive :

4. Using Memtest86
Restart the computer than set the boot sequence for booting from diskette.
This is a screenshot of Memtest86

Wait until column PASS to be more than 0, If the memory is damage Memtest86 will show error message like the screenshot.

Thanks be continued
9:26 PM | 4 comments | Read More

VI and VIM

Written By pcbolong on Sunday, February 15, 2009 | 7:37 PM

Vi and vim is actually the same, but there are differences between them. Vi and vim is a text editor application on linux, but vi does not have color-hilighting features, so only black and is the second generation of vi that already have color-hilighting features. Ok's lets go happy coding...

Create a new file or open file

Command to create a new file is :
#~$vim nama.file
If nama.file it will not have made a new file called nama.file.
But if nama.file already have, the command will open a file and edit the file. In Vim you can type the name without any file to create a new file, but later when it will exit vim will ask for the file name to save. When you open a file using Vim then you will see many signs the tilde (~) on the left of the page.
And at the bottom of the page will be visible to the information of the file name like this:
"nama.file" 20L,369C

-20L means the file has 20 lines / line
-369C means that the file has 368 character / letter

If the new file at the bottom of the information will look like this:

Enough for today...

7:37 PM | 0 comments | Read More

Wireless Network Architecture

Written By pcbolong on Wednesday, February 11, 2009 | 11:57 AM

The logical architecture of a network refers to the structure of standards and protocols that enable connections to be established between physical devices, or nodes, and which control the routing and flow of data between these nodes.

Since logical connections operate over physical links, the logical and physical architectures rely on each other, but the two also have a high degree of independence, as the physical configuration of a network can be changed without changing its logical architecture, and the same physical
network can in many cases support different sets of standards and protocols. The logical architecture of wireless networks will be described in this chapter with reference to the OSI model.

The OSI Network Model
The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model was developed by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) to provide a guideline for the development of standards for interconnecting computing devices. The OSI model is a framework for developing these standards rather than a
standard itself — the task of networking is too complex to be handled by a single standard.

The OSI model breaks down device to device connection, or more correctly application to application connection, into seven so-called “layers” of logically related tasks (see Table 2-1). An example will show how these layers combine to achieve a task such as sending and receiving an e-mail between two computers on separate local area networks (LANs) that are connected via the Internet.

The process starts with the sender typing a message into a PC e-mail application (Figure 2-1). When the user selects “Send”, the operating system combines the message with a set of Application layer (Layer 7) instructions that will eventually be read and actioned by the corresponding operating system and application on the receiving computer. The message plus Layer 7 instructions is then passed to the part of sender’s operating system that deals with Layer 6 presentation tasks. These include the translation of data between application layer formats as well as some types of security such as Secure Socket Layer (SSL)encryption. This process continues down through the successive software layers, with the message gathering additional instructions or control elements at each level.

By Layer 3 — the Network layer — the message will be broken down into a sequence of data packets, each carrying a source and destination IP address. At the Data Link layer the IP address is “resolved” to determine the physical address of the first device that the sending computer needs to transmit frames to — the so-called MAC or media access control address. In this example, this device may be a network switch that the sending computer is connected to or the default gateway to the Internet from the sending computer’s LAN. At the physical layer, also called the PHY layer, the data packets are encoded and modulated onto the carrier medium — a twisted wire pair in the case of a wired network, or electromagnetic radiation in the case of a wireless network — and transmitted to the device with the MAC address resolved at Layer 2.

Transmission of the message across the Internet is achieved through a number of device-to-device hops involving the PHY and Data Link layers of each routing or relaying device in the chain. At each step, the Data Link layer of the receiving device determines the MAC address of the next immediate destination, and the PHY layer transmits the packet to the device
with that MAC address.

On arrival at the receiving computer, the PHY layer will demodulate and decode the voltages and frequencies detected from the transmission medium, and pass the received data stream up to the Data Link layer. Here the MAC and LLC elements, such as a message integrity check, will
be extracted from the data stream and executed, and the message plus instructions passed up the protocol stack. At Layer 4, a protocol such as Transport Control Protocol (TCP), will ensure that all data frames making up the message have been received and will provide error recovery if any frames have gone missing. Finally the e-mail application will receive the decoded ASCII characters that make up the original transmitted message.

This post copyed from the book of "Wireless Networking Technology" by Steve Rackley, Newnes.

Enough for today. Maybe will continued in the next posted.

11:57 AM | 0 comments | Read More

HTML Lessons – Basic HTML Coding

Written By pcbolong on Monday, February 9, 2009 | 1:33 PM

Lets coding now... :P

HTML is a tag. Tags are instructions to a web browser. Thos particular instruction lets the web browser know that what follows is a web page, written in HTML. Tags can be written in upper-case or lower case letters (it doesn’t matter wich).

File Name
All web pages have a .html extension (or .htm).

In field File Name, the name is index.html. Then in field save as type i chose All Files.

All home pages have the file name index.html. index.html comes up automatically when the address of a domain or directory where it’s locatted is typed into a browser.

Enough for today..i'am so tired

1:33 PM | 0 comments | Read More